Aquatic Invasive Species
Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) are exotic or non-native aquatic organisms that pose a significant threat to the aquatic resources, water supplies or water infrastructure of this state. These organisms can be plants, fish, mussels, crayfish, invertebrates or pathogens. Four categories have been established and can be changed upon Commission approval.
|Category 1 Potential AIS:
||Category 2 Priority AIS:
||Category 3Established AIS:
AIS Listed as Noxious in Nebraska:
Species not yet sampled in Nebraska and considered a high threat.
Species present in Nebraska with limited distribution, considered highly unwanted species. All efforts should be taken to prevent the expansion of their population.
Species well established in Nebraska and total elimination is impossible. Local removal and control is the best that can be expected.
Species regulated by the Nebraska Department of Agriculture as noxious plant species.
Snakehead (Federally banned)
New Zealand Mudsnail
Brazilian Waterweed or Elodea
Didymo (Rock Snot)
White River Crayfish
Red Swamp Crayfish
Yellow Floating Heart
Creeping Water Primrose
Chinese Mystery Snail
Japanese Mystery Snail
Reed Canary Grass
Eurasian Common Reed (Phragmites)
Aquatic Invasive Species Introductions
Aquatic Invasive Species were introduced to new environments in a variety of manners, sometimes intentionally and sometimes by mistake. Some species, such as common carp, were introduced intentionally because immigrants desired them as a food source. Plant species were often initially introduced for landscaping purposes. Some species were introduced for commercial purposes and not intended to be release into the wild
In early years of fishery management, a popular stocking method was to stock a wide variety of fish to determine what worked. White perch, a species that has caused considerable problems in the eastern third of Nebraska, was introduced in this manner. The baitfish trade has been a source of introduction for species such as the Rusty Crayfish, Red Swamp Crayfish, European Rudd and the Central Mudminnow. The pet trade also introduces new species unintentionally. Snakehead, Asian clams and mystery snails were introduced in the United States when pet owners disposed of them in public waters. Exotic species as pacu and piranha have been collected in Nebraska waters, though fortunately neither species can survive our winters. Lastly, unintentional introduction through transport accounts for the many invasive species introductions. These organisms usually hitch hike on materials shipped from other countries or in the ballast waters of ships in the Great Lakes or ports along our coasts. The Great Lakes have been a major introduction location for many organisms such as zebra mussels, quagga musses and round goby.
Invasive Species Regulation
The 2012 Nebraska Legislature passed a bill that created the Nebraska Invasive Species Council and gave the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission ability to establish regulations to prevent the introduction and spread of listed aquatic invasive species. The main emphasis of these regulations targets species that can be spread via boats and trailers. Most of the regulations pertain to Commission authority to conduct boat inspections and decontaminations. Anglers and boaters are not allowed to arrive at a waterbody with any water that is not from a domestic source or to leave with any non-domestic water. In addition, they must conduct clean, drain and dry procedures to also remove any mud and vegetation that maybe attached prior to leaving. The disposal of baitfish prior to leaving an AIS contaminated water body may also be required to prevent the movement of unwanted species via a bait bucket.
The importation of fish to Nebraska from other states has been regulated to insure that only approved species enter the state and that these species are free of diseases.
Education and compliance by our users is the key to prevent the spread of all invasive species.
With the discovery of zebra mussels in 2006, most efforts were concentrated on monitoring the actions of surrounding states and educating the public. By and large, these efforts have been successful. Boater surveys indicate a positive increase in public knowledge about zebra mussels, and that most boaters clean, drain and dry their boats.
Legislation passed in 2015 provides for an official Aquatic Invasive Species program using funds obtained from a $5 increase in the three-year resident boat registration fee and an annual non-resident boater stamp of $10. Fee changes take effect on January 1, 2016. Income derived from these fees will fund an Aquatic Invasive Species Program Manager’s position, several seasonal technicians, and supplies and equipment necessary to run the program.
Key Aquatic Invasive Species In Nebraska
The first documented presence of an established zebra mussel population was in 2006 at the Offutt Base Lake south of Omaha. The lake was treated with copper sulfate in 2008 and 2009 in an attempt to eliminate the population. The initial results appeared to be promising, but in the fall of 2010 adult mussels were found, and since then the zebra mussel population became re-established. Populations of zebra mussels have subsequently been discovered at Zorinsky Lake in 2010 and at Lewis and Clark Lake in 2015.
No population of Quagga Mussels is known to exist in Nebraska at this time; however, last year they were sampled in Lake Angostura, located in Southwest South Dakota. This reservoir is very popular with boaters that reside in the Panhandle, increasing the probability that they could be transported into Nebraska water bodies such as Box Butte Reservoir, Lake Minatare or Whitney Lake.
White Perch are native to the east coast and were brought to Nebraska in the 1960’s as an experiment to see if they would live in alkaline sandhill lakes. They were raised at the Valentine Hatchery and a stocking of largemouth bass in both Wagon Train and Stagecoach lakes south of Lincoln accidently contained white perch. Over the years this species became established in those water bodies. Since white perch are related to white bass and look similar, anglers sometimes mistake the small perch as white bass and have move them to other water bodies. This has promoted their spread to such lakes as Branched Oak and Pawnee. Since then catfish anglers have found them to good bait. At this time, regulations make it illegal to move live white perch from any waterbody for any purpose. This species has the capability to dominate a total fish community, virtually eliminating natural recruitment of most species and greatly reducing survival of hatchery stocked species. The only effective management solution is to eliminate the entire fish community in invaded waters using rotenone applications.
Silver and Bighead Carp
These Asian carp species are the best known of the group. They gained access to the Mississippi River during flood events and have found their way to rivers of the Midwest. Due to their strong swimming and leaping ability, they can go over small barriers during flood events and gain access further upstream. Expanding populations are having a negative impact on our native species such as buffalo and paddlefish. In Nebraska, they have been found in the Missouri, Elkhorn, Platte and Loup rivers. While dams can prevent the movement of adults, concerns remain regarding unintentional movement of juveniles as baitfish. To address this, current seining restrictions in the eastern third of the state do not allow seined baitfish to be moved from where they were collected.
Rusty Crayfish is one of several crayfish species that are listed as invasive species. Crayfish are being introduced into the wild via their illegal use as bait. Rusty crayfish have established populations in at least two urban ponds in Omaha, and recently a population was discovered in the Missouri River below Gavins Point Dam.
Eurasian Milfoil and Curly-Leaf Pondweed
These species of submergent aquatic vegetation have the ability to out-compete native species. Curly-leaf pondweed appears early, grows fast and in clear water is found in depths over 10 feet. This causes access problems for both anglers and boaters. Due to its early growth, native species that appear later in the season are crowded out. As it dies off, decaying vegetation releases excess nutrients that promote algal blooms. Eurasian Milfoil is just starting to expand in Nebraska and can be difficult to distinguish from our native milfoil. Both species can be spread to other waterbodies through transport on boats and trailers.
Check Out the Nebraska Invasive Species Program Website (neinvasives.com) for more information